Disorders of sex development (DSD), sometimes referred to as disorders of sex differentiation, are medical terms referring to "congenital conditions in which development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomical sex is atypical." Lee et al. proposed a system of nomenclature based on "disorders of sex development" for clinical use, noting that "terms such as intersex, pseudohermaphroditism, hermaphroditism, sex reversal, and gender based diagnostic labels are particularly controversial," may be perceived as pejorative, and are confusing to practitioners and parents alike. In "We Used to Call Them Hermaphrodites," author Vilain makes clear that "DSD" is not a synonym for intersexuality; it replaces medical terms based on "hermaphrodite"
Founded in 2003 by Curtis Hinkle, OII is a decentralised network established to give voice to intersex people primarily outside the USA, those speaking languages other than just English, and people who do not fit the medicalised categories of disorder promoted by some other intersex groups: it is for people born with bodies which have atypical sexual characteristics. OII rejects the terminology of disorder (as in Disorders of sex development), as well as the sexualization of intersex (as in intersexuality) within an LGBT framework; rather OII seeks to acknowledge intersex people's own distinct sexuality, or non-sexuality, or as people who may identify as gay, lesbian, trans or straight, and in alliance with people of diverse sexual orientations.
Their objective is to bring about systemic change and resist the fear, shame, secrecy and stigma imposed upon adults as well as children through both the practice of non-consensual genital surgeries and the arbitrary assignment of a particular gender without informed consultation with the individual concerned. The ethos of the group is that people will hold different views as appropriate to the individual; this often entails treating as optional socially and medically constructed categories such as binary genders, sexual identifications as well as specific and non-specific pathologisms; the identity human being being seen as the fundamental identity.